• WHO
  • African countries need more than good strategy – unpacking WHO's 3rd Global Survey on eHealth

    Chapter 1 of the WHO and Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) publication Report of the third global survey on eHealth Global diffusion of eHealth: Making universal health coverage achievable says “It has become increasingly clear that UHC cannot be achieved without the support of eHealth.” It describes eHealth’s foundations and sees a national eHealth strategy as a core. That 58% of countries have a national eHealth strategy is an important start.

    Good components for these strategies are described as:

    What citizens value and understandThe context of the health prioritiesA visionA plan of action for delivering the visionMonitoring and evaluationStakeholder engagementGovernanceeHealth components of standards, legislation, technical and service delivery solutionsFinanceHuman resources to deliver them.

    Acfee’s African eHealth Forum (AeF) report in 2015, Advancing eHealth in Africa, identified some 60 long-standing eHealth challenges that need addressing too. These included connectivity, improving dependencies beyond healthcare, such as registration of births and deaths, integration with research, procurement, better risk management and cyber-crime. In 2015, the AeF concluded that “African countries’ successful, expanded eHealth investment depends on dealing with long-standing eHealth challenges.” Solutions are seen as comprising thirteen measures:

    StrategiesHuman eHealth capacityLeading and managing complex change                          Relationships with suppliersSustainabilityeHealth performanceHealth informaticsBusiness casesBenefits realisationRegulation and governanceProcurementMedical EducationCountry scale.

    Evidence of eHealth’s performance and net benefits is sparse. eHNA has referred to numerous evaluations that show a range of studies with incompatible findings that range across eHealth’s success, its unexpected extra costs, modest benefits and financial disasters.

    This year’s AeF report, Advancing eHealth 2016, identified five themes, one of which is National eHealth Strategies, and set out seven priorities as:

    Cyber-securityCloud computingeHealth surveillanceEstablish technical working groups for Interoperability (IOp) and support an IOp workshop and development programmeDevelop eHealth curriculaEngage professional bodiesCollaborate with regional bodies.

    Progress is underway and Africa’s regional bodies have an important role to play in eHealth’s development. They will need to expand their views beyond the WHO report contents to consider recent challenges to eHealth development, such as the growth in cybercrime and the need for countries to take effective countermeasures. For Africa, this will put extra strain on already stretched resourcing for eHealth foundations. National eHealth Strategies will need to be agile and well supported across local stakeholders to fulfill their important foundational role. 

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    Image from the global eHealth observatory report 

  • Africa’s eHealth financing’s not typical – unpacking WHO's 3rd Global Survey on eHealth

    Sustainable eHealth is a goal for Africa. Affordability is a crucial component. WHO Global Survey 2015, the data source for the WHO and Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) publication eHealth Report of the third global survey on eHealth Global diffusion of eHealth: Making universal health coverage achievable. 

    Chapter 1 provides insights. It shows a profile of four main sources. Africa’s is very different, confirming one of its biggest challenges, securing sufficient sustainable eHealth finance. The comparison is:

    The telling challenge is that Africa’s reliance on donor and public finance is nearly as much as the global rate for public finance. It’s widely recognised in Africa that this is not sustainable enough, but realigning it to match the global profile more closely isn’t realistic in the medium term.

    Instead, a strategy of seeking donor support for non-recurring resources that matches Africa’s eHealth priorities seems a better option. This isn’t easy either. Africa’s eHealth needs investment in a wide range of capacities and infrastructure to expand and deepen its foundations. This can be less attractive to donors who have their own priorities that are often for more visible and tangible projects.

    The other important feature is that PPP is close to the global average too. PPP often has high operational costs and limited risk sharing and almost no risk transfer. It’s attractive to start up big scale eHealth programmes, but its annual operating costs can be extremely rigid and onerous. If WHO’s survey shows Africa moving towards PPP instead of the more demanding initiative of expanding public finance, it signals a need for rigorous financial and risks assessments as part of a robust business case before proceeding.  

    eHNA’s posted on an extreme example of a crashed PPP. The health system believed it had transferred the risk, but the legal system didn’t see it that way.

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    Image from the global eHealth observatory report 

  • WHO’s third global eHealth observatory report is out and Africa’s trailing

    WHO’s third global eHealth observatory report is a meaningful update on global developments and trends and poses important challenges for African countries embracing eHealth for their health systems’ transformation.

    Helping to review content for the report, along with colleagues from the WHO eTAG and many other eHealth experts, I was exposed to the considerable work underway globally, and the extraordinary teams helping to explore eHealth's role in improving our health and health systems.   

    At Acfee, we're especially interested in the implications for Africa. eHNA will post separately on each of the eight chapters in WHO’s report. Each post will take an African perspective to offer an assessment of features of its eHealth and Universal Healthcare Coverage (UHC) opportunities and constraints.

    It’s widely recognised that Africa has a considerable healthcare deficit and high disease burden. The combination creates a constant, long-standing struggle and much more than the policy and management euphemism of a challenge. Africa’s average healthcare spending per head’s some US$145, about 14% of the World Bank global average of about US$1,061. The highest’s about 62%, the lowest less than 2%. These aren’t adjusted for the high disease burden, or the difficulties of providing healthcare to extremely remote communities. It’s unrealistic to expect Africa to achieve the huge productivity increase needed to provide UHC, provide the extra cash and capacity needed, or a combination of both over the medium-term.

    Aiming to achieve UHC in this economic context is a lot more than demanding. The Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) publication Report of the third global survey on eHealth Global diffusion of eHealth: Making universal health coverage achievable, says “It has become increasingly clear that UHC cannot be achieved without the support of eHealth.” I've heard similar sentiments expressed by African colleagues such as Liberia's Luke Bawo, speaking about his country's response to Ebola and Acfee's Ousmane Ly, describing the eHealth initiatives he's leading in West Africa.

    It's a reasonable proposition, but for Africa, it’s not enough for all people to receive the high-quality health services they need without suffering financial hardship.

    Africa’s UHC solutions are a combination of:

    Substantial and rapid economic growthSignificant, sustainable increase in finance for health and healthcareConverting the extra cash into sustainable real healthcare resources, including all types of healthcare workers, medicines, medical and surgical supplies and extra and better facilitiesProven eHealth, especially proven mHealth.

    WHO’s report says 90% of eHealth strategies reference the UHC objectives or its key elements. This is for the 58% of countries that have eHealth policies or strategies, so about 52% of all countries. For Africa, 39% of countries report having an eHealth strategy, of which 58% have UHC objectives, so about 23% of countries. Consequently, Africa’s eHealth role in UHC isn’t specified formally yet, indicating the need to enhance or replace them.

    Other limitations are that Africa’s eHealth strategies seldom integrate with related economic growth, healthcare finance and real resource strategies and plans, and none have sustainable, longer-term horizons. Africa’s eHealth strategies need upgrading for other factors either understated or not referred to in the report. Four are:

    Effective, consistent patient unique IDInteroperability (IOp), which is in its infancy across AfricaCyber-security, which is becoming an increasing global challengeeHealth governance, not yet well developed across Africa.

    Acfee’s African eHealth Forum (AeF) report included these in its identified priorities. Acfee will release commentaries on cyber-security and eHealth governance early in 2017. It will also be able to offer health systems opportunities to participate in developing IOp use cases using a globally recognised methodology and standard.

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    Image from the global eHealth observatory report 

  • WHO Zika app for healthcare workers

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is building an arsenal of digital tools to support patients and healthcare workers. It already has an e-pocketbook app for children and recently released an mHealth checklist for the reporting of mobile health studies. Their latest mobile app supports healthcare workers in their fight against Zika, a fast-spreading virus that the WHO has declared a global public health emergency. The Zika app is a medical app for physicians and health professionals to reference for the latest information about Zika, says an article in iMedicalApps. 

    The virus is an emerging mosquito-borne illness that was first discovered in the 1940’s. It is spread via the bite of the Aedes mosquito, though we now know the virus can also be spread via blood and semen. 

    Although outbreaks in the past in Africa and Pacific countries had noted microcephaly, the current outbreak that started in French Polynesia and Brazil has brought the proposed microcephaly link to the forefront. The WHO predicts that over 2,500 babies in Brazil will be born with microcephaly attributed to Zika.

    The virus has spread rapidly throughout the Americas. The Centers for Disease Control ahs reported says there are now cases in over 40 countries and territories. Zika’s also now reached Africa’s shores as numerous cases in Cape Verde, off Western Africa, has been reported in eHNA. 

    Currently there are very few medical apps on Zika, which is why the WHO Zika app is a welcome addition. The Zika medical app has three main modules: general information, health care workers, and news. Each one has many sub topics, ranging from symptoms to transmission to prevention. The healthcare worker section contains all of WHO’s technical guidance, ranging from birth defect surveillance training to prevention through sexual transmission. The medical app contains numerous WHO graphics, PDF’s and videos along with the most current Zika news. 

    It’s a crucial tool for healthcare workers. The app’s free, available in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and provides detailed content on the Zika virus. Its life-saving information and news section will ensure healthcare workers are familiar with the latest developments and spread of the virus, allowing healthcare providers and policy makers to track its spread and make better informed decisions. It’s essential for Africa’s health systems.